Harmful Effects in Personal Assistants´ Client Transfer Situations

Anette Lind1, Gunvor Gard2, *
Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden.

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Lind et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden; Tel: 46-46-2321196; E-mail:


The aim of this study was to describe personal assistants’ risks for harmful effects in client transfer situations at work. Observation and assessment of their working postures in transfer situations were performed by the Swedish ergonomic regulations concerning “red flags” (AFS 1998:1), by video recordings and by biomechanical analysis. The results showed that among eight home care assistants, four assistants had a low-back posture in client transfer situations which was flexed and/or rotated >60, classified as a harmful effect, a red flag, with a high risk for musculoskeletal workrelated symptoms and disorders and the other four had a risk for harmful effects, yellow flags. The harmful effects were noted in highly flexed and rotated working postures when technical equipment was not used or not possible to use anthropometrically correct. All eight personal assistants´ neck flexion indicated yellow flags, thus there were risks for harmful effect in the neck

Keywords: Harmful effects, patient transfer, personal assistant, home care.