Warrick’s Principle, Implied Linkages and the Effect of Hand/Control Location

Errol R. Hoffmann*
P.O. Box 89, Halls Gap, Victoria 3381, Australia.

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R. Hoffmann et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the P.O. Box 89, Halls Gap, Victoria 3381, Australia; E-mail:


In two-dimensional display/control relationships, Warrick’s principle has been found to be an important factor in determining stereotype strengths. This principle has an ‘implied linkage’ that may bias the responses of persons such as engineers who have knowledge of mechanisms and hence produce stereotypes that are not representative of the general population. It is shown that such ‘implied linkages’ may also exist for three-dimensional display/control relationships, where the control is not in the same plane as the display. A further factor in such cases may be a ‘hand/control location’ (HCL) effect that is a physically-based factor related to the location of the control relative to the body, and hence to handedness, hand used and hand posture used in controlling. Several examples show the validity of this concept for both two- and three-dimensional display-control relationships.