Hand-Eye Coordination Using a Video See-Through Augmented Reality System

M. Park1, *, S. Serefoglou2, L. Schmidt3, K. Radermacher2, C. Schlick 1, H. Luczak 1
1 Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
2 Medical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
3 Human-Machine Systems Engineering, University of Kassel, Germany

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Park et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics, RWTH Aachen University, Germany; E-mail:


The paper describes two experiments for investigating the influence of different levels of camera displacement on hand-eye coordination while using a video see-through head-mounted display. During the first experiment 15 camera positions with five levels of height displacement and three levels of depth displacement were compared in four different tasks. Using a two-way ANOVA, the comparison of the calculated performance characteristic values showed significant influence of height displacement on hand-eye coordination. In conclusion, cameras should be placed above or below eye level, but by no more than 35 mm, in order to preserve hand-eye coordination. In the second experiment, a mirror system was used to check hand-eye coordination in an exemplary medical task allowing the cameras to be placed virtually at eye level. A significant decrease in accuracy was found while using the head-mounted display compared to direct view. Finally, the mirror system was compared to the 15 camera positions using the data from the same tasks. Significant differences in performance were found between the mirror system and eye level position, as well as the position slightly below eye level.

The results of the experiment provide design recommendations for developers and users of video see-through systems.

Keywords: Hand-eye coordination, augmented reality, video see-through.